UN action

The international system for preventing and combating the financing of terrorism and the activity of countries that threaten international peace and security is essentially based on the application of restrictive measures of "freezing" the funds and economic resources held by natural and legal persons , groups and entities specifically identified by international organizations ("designated" subjects).

The freezing of assets, funds and economic resources is an obligation on the designated parties, in particular financial parties, but also concerns the public administrations that take care of the keeping of public registers, in possession of data or information relating to real estate and registered furniture, to be frozen as they fall under the term "assets", "funds" and "economic resources".

To counter proliferation programs, the United Nations Security Council first adopted measures of a general nature with Resolution no. 1540/2004, which defined a strategic system, imposing on the Member States a series of preventive measures aimed at limiting the spread of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and related components, such as the adoption of a system of restrictions and prohibitions on access to related activities by private parties and control over exports and trade in products and related technologies. The resolution also established a specific Committee, whose mandate is to monitor the state of implementation of Resolution no. 1540/2004 by the Member States.

The Security Council has therefore adopted a series of specific measures against countries involved in the development of programs not authorized by the international community, namely the Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) or North Korea (DPRK).

These restrictive measures are mainly focused on a control system on exports of products and technologies susceptible to military use (dual-use) and on a series of financial restrictions on entities involved in sensitive activities, partly borrowed from those already in existence. for the fight against international terrorism (freezes).

They include:• the freezing of funds and economic resources held or controlled, directly or indirectly, by persons, entities or groups included in the lists prepared by the relevant UN Committees;• trade restrictions, including trade restrictions on import or export and arms embargoes;• restrictions of a financial nature, including financial restrictions or financial assistance and the prohibition on the provision of financial services;• other restrictions, including restrictions on technical assistance, bans on flights, bans on entry or transit, diplomatic sanctions, suspension of cooperation and boycott of sporting events.

They inlude:

  • the freezing of funds and economic resources held or controlled, directly or indirectly, by persons, entities or groups included in the lists prepared by the relevant UN Committees;
  • trade restrictions, including trade restrictions on import or export and arms embargoes;
  • restrictive measures to financial transactions, including financial restrictions or financial assistance and the prohibition on the provision of financial services;
  • any other restriction, including restrictions on technical assistance, a ban on flights, a ban on entry or transit, diplomatic sanctions, suspension of cooperation and the boycotting of sporting events.